Astronomy Dates Biblical Events

Validity of Astronomical Dating

The Year of Jubilee

Evidence of The Resurrection

Experiences With God

Archangel Gabriel
Daniel vs. Muhammad


Elephantine Papyri
...Solar Eclipse


Beyond 2005

Conclusions

New Book: 2005

Popular Questions

Send Us Your Comments

"Spiritual Technology"
The Chronological Calendar for King Artaxerxes' reign in the 5th Century BC
Based on Scientific Dating the 5th Century BC Elephantine Papyri

Purpose of this Calendar for Biblical Prophecy is to show that:
  1. King Artaxerxes' 20th year began on September 18, 446 BC and ended on September 5, 445 BC
    (Hebrew Calendar Dates using the Julian Calendar)
  2. Artaxerxes' Decree Issued to Rebuild Jerusalem occurred on Sunday, March 16, 445 BC
    (Julian Calendar Date)

Ascension Year Definition: The time from the beginning day of a king's reign to the last day before the New Year. For example, King Artaxerxes began to reign sometime between August 4 to 10 in the year 465 BC. His ascension year began in August 465 BC and ended 1-day before the date listed for official year 1 in the matrix below. To minimize confusion, here are two examples of King Artaxerxes' ascension year:

  1. Hebrew calendar: King Artaxerxes' ascension year began in August 465 BC and ended on October 16, 465 BC (Hebrew date Elul 29) The Hebrew New Year or Rosh Hashanah began on October 17, 465 BC (Hebrew date Tishri 1).
  2. Persian calendar: King Artaxerxes' ascension year began in August 465 BC and ended on April 12, 464 BC (Persian date Addaru 29) The Persian New Year began on April 13, 464 BC (Persian date Nisanu 1).
It is important to understand that the dates listed below would have been the New Year date for the Hebrew, Egyptian, and Persian cultures in each notated year. For the Egyptian calendar, the date for the New Year is known. For the Hebrew and Persian calendars, the date wanders about the year. I have entered TBD, which means "To Be Determined" since a papyrus was not available to know with certainty the official New Years date.

Artaxerxes
Official Year
Papyrus
dated
Year Begins
Hebrew
Year Begins
Egyptian
Year Begins
Persian
ascension January 2, 464 BC
Persian Dated
August 4-10, 465 BC August 4-10, 465 BC August 4-10, 465 BC
1 January 2, 464 BC
Persian Dated
October 17, 465 BC December 17, 465 BC April 13, 464 BC
2 None October 7, 464 BC December 17, 464 BC April 2, 463 BC
3 None September 26, 463 BC December 17, 463 BC March 22, 462 BC
4 None September 15, 462 BC December 17, 462 BC March 10, 461 BC
5 None September 3, 461 BC December 16, 461 BC February 28, 460 BC
6 November 11, 460BC
Hebrew Dated

May 15, 459 BC
All Calendars Agree
August 24, 460 BC
December 16, 460 BC March 19, 459 BC
7 None September 12, 459 BC December 16, 459 BC TBD 458 BC
8 None TBD, 458 BC December 16, 458 BC TBD, 457 BC
9 None TBD, 457 BC December 15, 457 BC TBD, 456 BC
10 None TBD, 456 BC December 15, 456 BC TBD, 455 BC
11 None TBD, 455 BC December 15, 455 BC TBD, 454 BC
12 None TBD, 454 BC December 15, 454 BC TBD, 453 BC
13 None TBD, 453 BC December 14, 453 BC TBD, 452 BC
14 July 6, 451 BC
All Calendars Agree
TBD, 452 BC December 14, 452 BC April 19, 451 BC
15 None October 13, 451 BC December 14, 451 BC April 8, 450 BC
16 July 13, 449 BC
All Calendars Agree
October 2, 450 BC December 14, 450 BC March 28, 449 BC
17 None September 21, 449 BC December 13, 449 BC TBD, 448 BC
18 None TBD, 448 BC December 13, 448 BC TBD, 447 BC
19 November 18, 446 BC
Egyptian Dated
TBD, 447 BC December 13, 447 BC March 25, 446 BC
20 None September 18, 446 BC December 13, 446 BC March 16, 445 BC
21 None September 6, 445 BC December 12, 445 BC TBD, 444 BC
22 None TBD, 444 BC December 12, 444 BC TBD, 443 BC
23 None TBD, 443 BC December 12, 443 BC TBD, 442 BC
24 None TBD, 442 BC December 12, 442 BC TBD, 441 BC
25 August 26, 440 BC
All Calendars Agree
TBD, 441 BC December 11, 441 BC April 17, 440 BC
26 None October 11, 440 BC December 11, 440 BC TBD, 439 BC
27 None TBD, 439 BC December 11, 439 BC TBD, 438 BC
28 September 14, 437 BC
All Calendars Agree
TBD, 438 BC December 11, 438 BC April 12, 437 BC
29 December 13, 437 BC
All Calendars Agree
October 8, 437 BC December 10, 437 BC TBD, 436 BC
30 None TBD, 436 BC December 10, 436 BC TBD, 435 BC
31 October 30, 434 BC
Egyptian Dated
TBD, 435 BC December 10, 435 BC April 12, 434 BC
32 None October 6, 434 BC December 10, 434 BC TBD, 433 BC
33 None TBD, 433 BC December 9, 433 BC TBD, 432 BC
34 None TBD, 432 BC December 9, 432 BC TBD, 431 BC
35 None TBD, 431 BC December 9, 431 BC TBD, 430 BC
36 None TBD, 430 BC December 9, 430 BC TBD, 429 BC
37 None TBD, 429 BC December 8, 429 BC TBD, 428 BC
38 June 12, 427 BC
All Calendars Agree
TBD, 428 BC December 8, 428 BC March 24, 427 BC
39 None September 18, 427 BC December 8, 427 BC TBD, 426 BC
40 None TBD, 426 BC December 8, 426 BC TBD, 425 BC
41 None TBD, 425 BC December 7, 425 BC TBD, 424 BC

The Hebrew calendar as used in the 5th century BC was very different than the Modern Day Hebrew Calendar.

RETURN TO TOP
 

Home
Return to Previous Page