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"Spiritual Technology"
Biblical Chronology, Year of the Crucifixion

Outline of Presentation for this Page


In what year did Jesus die?

The vast majority of scholars and scientists that have studied the year of the crucifixion will select the year AD 30 or AD 33. However, there are problems associated with these two years. And some people will always select the year AD 31 based on the belief that Jesus was buried in the grave for 3-full days as written only in the gospel of Matthew.

This page discusses the issues associated with the years 30, 31, and 33 AD as the year of Christ's crucifixion.

It is important to note that the 14,000 day theory depends on Jesus being crucified on April 11, AD 32. The year 32 AD is a viable selection based on scientific dating the Elephantine papyri. If the year 32 AD is correct, then it means that most people have made unacceptable assumptions about the position of the sun, the moon, and the earth in the year that Jesus died on the cross. The year 32 AD has been discussed in-depth using support of the Elephantine papyri. Click here if you want to review this information.

Discerning Problems with the Year AD 30

The problem with the year AD 30 is that Jesus went to the river Jordan to be baptized by John the Baptist sometime between August 19, AD 28 to one year later on August 18, AD 29. During this one year interval, Jesus began his public ministry by being baptized by John the Baptist. The reference to this year is found only in the gospel of Luke. Click here if you would like to review this information.

In combination with the date given above, the gospel of John reveals that Jesus attended at least 3 Passovers (or possibly 4 Passovers if you accept assumptions about biblical literature) during his ministry. The earliest passover for Jesus' ministry would have been in the Spring of AD 29. If the Passover of AD 29 were Jesus 1st passover mentioned in the gospel of John, then the 3rd Passover would have occurred in the year AD 31. The available information reveals that the year AD 30 is too early to be a truly viable date. Some people may not accept that the year AD 30 was too early based on preconceived ideas. But if you accept all available information from all the gospel accounts, it is logical to conclude that the year AD 30 is too early and is therefore not the year of the crucifixion.

If the criteria above were NOT considered, then the year AD 30 would be very viable. However, to truly discern the year of the crucifixion requires that all the available information be considered.

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Discerning Problems with the Year AD 31
Required Wednesday Crucifixion Day

If you believe that Jesus lay in the tomb for 3-full 24-hours days (72 hours), then the year 31 AD is a possibility. This viewpoint depends on accepting a verse found only in the gospel of Matthew 12:40 and a modern day interpretation of how to count time. Simply comparing Matthew 12:40 to Esther 4:16 - 5:1 reveals that 3 full days and nights are not exactly that in biblical terminology. To accept the Wednesday crucifixion viewpoint requires that evidence from other gospels and Old Testament books be overlooked. This is especially true of Levitical Scriptures that define how to count three days for a sacrifice. Based on the 3-day biblical counting requirement, AD 31 is not a viable year for the crucifixion.

But it is important to consider all the available information. If you like a Bible based interpretation, then the year 31 AD does not appear to be viable year for the crucifixion based on the required Wednesday or perhaps Thursday crucifixion day. In addition, the year 31 AD is most likely too early to fit the historic requirement found in Luke 3:1. For example, if Jesus' 1st passover occurred in the Spring of AD 30, the 3rd Passover would have been in AD 32. The historic references found in the gospel of Luke excludes the year AD 30. And based on Scripture, the year AD 31 also appears to be too early to fit the historic information.

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Discerning Problems with the Year AD 33
A bad choice when 173,880 days are used

Scholars pick the year AD 33 based on the assumption that the full moon must occur on either Thursday or Friday. However, scientific dating the Elephantine papyri supports that this is not a good assumption.

Three problems arise when discussing the year AD 33 as a possible crucifixion year as follows.

Problem No. 1: To begin, the historic reference found in Luke 3:1 supports that both John the Baptist and Jesus began to minister in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar. For Jesus to be crucified in the year AD 33, it would have to be the 4th Passover during Jesus' ministry. However, it is not known if Jesus attended a fourth Passover during his ministry years. The 4th Passover is assumed. Based on the historic references found in the gospels of Luke and John, the year AD 33 is too late to fit the historic narrative.

Problem No. 2:Archaeological evidence supports that the Apostle Paul became a Christian in the later half of AD 32 or early AD 33. If this is true, then Christ would have died in the year AD 32.

Consider the evidence that supports the Apostle Paul being converted in late AD 32 to early AD 33. An archaeological discovery referred to as the Gallio Inscription verifies that the Apostle Paul was in Achaia, Greece about AD 51 to 52. Click here to get more information on the Gallio artifact, which verifies when events in the book of Acts occurred. This evidence is accepted by both secular and religious historians. No one disputes the fact that the Apostle Paul was in Achaia in the years AD 51 to 52 (the events recorded in Acts 18 occurred in the years AD 51 to 52).

How does this relate to the Apostle Paul being converted in late AD 32 or early AD 33?

To begin, the Apostle Paul writes about events in his life after his conversion on the road to Damascus. To be specific, the Apostle Paul writes about two trips he took to Jerusalem.

  • On the first trip, Paul went to visit and to get acquainted with Peter and with Jesus' brother, James. This occurred more than 3 years after his conversion experience.
  • Time Segment of 3-Years: " Then three years later I went up to Jerusalem to become acquainted with Cephas, and stayed with him fifteen days. But I did not see any other of the apostles except James, the Lord's brother" (Galatians 1:18-19).

  • For the second trip to Jerusalem, Paul writes that it occurred an additional 14 years later (not 11-years based on 14 - 3 = 11) and that he took Barnabas on the trip to Jerusalem. This must be the events recorded in Acts 15 as well as being referred to in Galatians.
  • Time Segment of 14-Years: "Then after an interval of fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus along also" (Galatians 2:1).

So the Apostle Paul writes about a 3-year and 14-year time span after his conversion on the road to Damascus. The 3-year and 14-year times frames occurred in sequence as noted above.

The key to understanding when the Apostle Paul converted is based on his visit at Jerusalem after the 14-year segment, which must be AD 49. The events at Jerusalem for this trip are recorded in Acts 15. (The events of Acts 18 where Paul stood before Gallio were two years later in the year AD 51). So the Gallio artifact supports this chronology for Paul's conversion.

Based on the available evidence, the Apostle Paul had been a Christian for 17 years when he went to Jerusalem in the year AD 49. By subtracting 17 from the year 49, the evidence supports that the Apostle Paul became a Christian as early as the summer of AD 32 or in the first half of the year AD 33. This evidence does not support the viewpoint that Jesus died on the cross in the year AD 33.

Problem No. 3: Some people accept the 173,880 days based on the book of Daniel. Harold Hoehner, professor at Dallas Theological Seminary, thinks that the decree to rebuild and restore Jerusalem occurred in March 444 BC. However, scientific dating the Elephantine papyri does not support this viewpoint. The scientific analysis verifies that the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem occurred on Sunday, March 16, 445 BC. Eleven Elephantine papyri are scientifically dated during the reign of King Artaxerxes and the papyrus dated November 18, 446 BC supports that the edict occurred on Sunday, March 16, 445 BC. Click here if you want to review the scientific dating and come to a logical and decisive conclusion about the year 445 BC as the 20th year of King Artaxerxes.

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Scholarly Assumptions
A Full Moon must occur on a Thursday or Friday


If true, then only AD 30 or AD 33 are possible for the Year of the Crucifixion
Scientific Dating the Elephantine Papyri supports AD 32

Many have assumed that Jesus had to die in a year that the full moon occurred on a Thursday or Friday. If this is true, only the years AD 30 or AD 33 are acceptable as years for the crucifixion. Is this an acceptable assumption? (The evidence presented above supports that the years AD 30 is too early and the year AD 33 is too late for the crucifixion).

Scientific dating the Elephantine papyri shows that the Hebrew and Persian calendars were still being developed in the 5th century BC. The modern day Hebrew calendar was not used until about AD 360. It is apparent that the modern day Hebrew calendar was done to maintain the Jewish identity by making Jewish holidays conflict with so-called Christian holidays. So the modern day Hebrew calendar was a post 1st century development.

Because the Hebrew calendar was not calculated, it is very feasible that the crucifixion occurred on Friday, April 11, AD 32. The calendar could be off by 3-full days. Based on the available evidence as supported by scientific dating the Elephantine papyri, the scholarly assumptions must be questioned. It is necessary to conclude that scholarly assumptions about the ancient Hebrew calendar contrast with the astronomical positions of the earth, the moon, and the sun as uncovered by scientific dating the Elephantine papyri. The ancient Hebrew calendar was still being developed until well after the 1st century.

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Book of Revelation Uses 360-Day Prophetic Year
AD 32 Requires the 360-Day Prophetic Year

Are human events under divine guidance to achieve the divine plan for humanity?

The details surrounding biblical events that occurred during the 1st century support that Jesus died on the cross on Friday, April 11, AD 32. By accepting "only" the information given in the gospels, a divine plan appears to be in the works. Consider the following evidences from ancient history:

  • The gospel of John cites that Jesus attended three Passovers during his ministry years. And at the third passover, Jesus died on the cross. It is certain that the gospel of John does not mention a 4th passover. Some scholars have assumed that there is a 4th Passover.
  • The gospel of Luke reveals the exact year that Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist in the river Jordan. This can only be August 19, AD 28 to one year later, August 18, AD 29. It takes speculation to believe that Jesus went to the river Jordan at some other time simply because Luke recorded the specific year. And Luke tied the date to the personality of Tiberius Caesar. Almost everyone in the Roman Empire knew of Tiberius and Roman historians wrote about the life and times of all the Romans Caesars. This information makes it possible to know when Jesus began his public ministry.
  • The previous two bullets make it possible to isolate only two possible years for the crucifixion. If Jesus' 1st ministry Passover was the Spring of AD 29, then the third Passover could only be the year AD 31. But a more realistic assessment based on the life of John the Baptist would have Jesus' first ministry Passover occur in the Spring of AD 30. The third Passover could only be the year AD 32. The year AD 33 is not feasible unless you assume that Jesus attended a 4th Passover during his ministry.
  • The Gallio Inscription reveals that the Apostle Paul was in Achaia in the years AD 51 to 52. The 17-year requirement recorded in the book of Galatians supports that the Apostle Paul became a Christian in late AD 32 or early AD 33. This information appears to rule out the year AD 33 as a possible year for the crucifixion.
  • Josephus witnessed the destruction of the temple and wrote about its mysterious destruction. Josephus was awestruck by the event. It did not appear to Josephus that such an event could occur by mere chance. Josephus' information permits us to scientifically date (using the science of astronomy) that the temple was destroyed on Sunday, August 5, AD 70.
  • I find it remarkable that the Elephantine papyri have been preserved that permit people living in the 20th and 21st centuries to scientifically date these 2500 year old documents. After scientifically dating the ancient papyri, we logically discern that King Artaxerxes issued the decree to rebuild and restore Jerusalem on Sunday, March 16, 445 BC.
  • But the real key to discerning that human events appear to be under divine direction is based on using the 360-day prophetic calendar. By applying this time frame from Daniel's prophecy, we are able to split the number of days from Sunday, March 16, 445 BC to Sunday, August 5, AD 70 into two segments to show that exactly 14,000 days appear to be hidden in Daniel's "time-oriented" prophecy. The 360-day prophetic year is critical to isolating the 14,000 day theory of time and that Jesus died on the cross in the Spring of AD 32.


Is all this information just a coincidence?

Some people will reply, "Oh, but I just can't accept that God would lay out a plan based on a 360-day prophetic time table!"

Consider that when the book of Revelation is fulfilled, the 360-day prophetic year is written into its text. Since the year AD 32 can only be obtained by using the 360-day prophetic year, do these calculations using a 360-day prophetic year point to the book of Revelation? Is this a coincidence?

The information presented on this web site is based on using astronomy to scientifically date when biblical events occurred in ancient history based on available information. And it is also based on accepting what is written into the biblical texts, regardless of what the so-called scholars tell you to believe or disbelieve. The facts and theory presented on this web page come down to one simple question: "Do you believe that Jesus is indeed the divine Messiah, God incarnate, foretold by the prophets?"

Click here to send an e-mail that you desire to know for certain that you're a Christian.

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