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"Spiritual Technology"
Assyriology, Scientific Dating the Reign of Artaxerxes with Certainty
Insights into the Date for Christ's Crucifixion on Friday, April 11, AD 32
Mysterious Alignments to the Feast of Trumpets, October 4, 2005

Outline of Presentation for this Page (Ancient History)

  1. Scientific dates for Papyri that are NOT Subject to Interpretation
  2. Scientific dates for Papyri that are Subject to Human Interpretation


Outline of Presentation for this Page (21st Century)

Scientific dating the Elephantine Papyri with Certainty
(Chronology for King Artaxerxes)

This page presents evidence that verifies King Artaxerxes' 20th year began on September 18, 446 BC (Hebrew calendar) and ended on September 5, 445 BC. The basis for this viewpoint comes from scientifically dating eleven Elephantine Papyri that were written during King Artaxerxes' reign. The method used to isolate the 20th year of King Artaxerxes is two-fold as follows:

Method number 1 requires that specific papyri be segregated that permit us (human beings) to know with certainty that there is no error or other possibility that these papyri could be interpreted incorrectly. Seven of the eleven papyri cannot be construed to arrive at a wrong answer due to mathematics. This will be explained shortly.

Method number 2 then reviews the remaining four papyri that could result in a human beings giving the wrong interpretation. These remaining papyri could result in a scholar making a human error in finding out when a papyrus was written.

Based on this approach, the papyri from method number 1 will take precedence over the interpretable papyri from method number 2.

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Method 1: Scientifically dating the Elephantine Papyri
Papyri not Subject to Interpretation

How can we be certain?

The only way to be certain is to isolate papyri that document human events during King Artaxerxes reign that cannot be changed by interpretation of the year of the king. Another page on this web site shows that there were three possible methods by which a scribe could document the year of the king. The three methods are based on the Hebrew, Egyptian, and Persian calendars. Please review the three methods by clicking here.

The only time that all three calendar methods agreed was from the Persian month of Nisanu (typically in March) to the Hebrew calendar month of Tishri (typically in September). A total of six papyri fall within this time frame. These six papyri are shown in graphs just below along with their scientific dates. Finally, since the Elephantine papyri have only a Hebrew and Egyptian date, it is possible that a papyrus date is not subject to interpretation after the Egyptian date of Thoth 1. A seventh item meets this criteria, but it will be shown in the subsequent section below.

Since the Hebrew month is Sivan and the Egyptian month is Phamenoth, there can be no dispute that this papyrus was written in the 14th year of King Artaxerxes. The date of the papyrus is July 6, 451 BC. (For scholarly reference only, the item above is denoted as Kraeling 1)

The papyrus date shown above (Kraeling 2) had some damage. However, the damage was not serious enough to prevent scientifically dating the papyrus to July 13, 449 BC. This papyrus was written in the 16th year of King Artaxerxes' reign.

The papyrus date shown above had no damage and is dated to August 26, 440 BC. This papyrus was written in the 25th year of King Artaxerxes' reign. (For scholarly reference only, the item above is denoted as Aramaic Papyrus 14 or AP 14)

The papyrus date shown above (Kraeling 5) had no damage and is dated to June 12, 427 BC. This papyrus was written in the 38th year of King Artaxerxes' reign.

The papyrus date shown above (Kraeling 3) had no damage and is dated to September 14, 437 BC. This papyrus was written in the 28th year of King Artaxerxes' reign. It is important to note that the Hebrew date is Elul 7. The Hebrew calendar date for King Artaxerxes will change to year 29 on Tishri 1 (which occurred 22 days later). And the Egyptian date as noted above is Payni 9. The Egyptian calendar date for King Artaxerxes will change to year 29 on Thoth 1 (which occurred 86 days later). Another papyrus verifies this change as noted by the graph just below, which was written 90 days later in the 29th year of King Artaxerxes.

This papyrus (AP 10) is dated after the Egyptian New Year. That is why both the Hebrew and Egyptian year for the king would agree. The papyrus date shown above had no damage and is dated to December 13, 437 BC. This papyrus was written in the 29th year of King Artaxerxes' reign.

There is one more scientifically dated item (commonly referred to as the Cairo Sandstone Stele) that is not subject to human interpretation. However, I have chosen to present this item in the Hebrew dated section below to substantiate that it is accurate, despite having a human error that is easily corrected by the six papyri presented above.

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Method 2: Scientifically dating the Elephantine Papyri
Papyri Subject to Interpretation

Elephantine papyri that fall between the New Year for either the Hebrew, Egyptian, or Persian calendar are subject to human interpretation. For example, if a papyrus is written after the Hebrew New Year but before the Egyptian New Year, it could have two different values listed for the year of King Artaxerxes. The question that must be answered is whether the Scribe used the Hebrew, Egyptian, or Persian calendar to date the year of Artaxerxes' reign? That is why these four remaining papyri could be skewed to give either the right or wrong answer.

Since the previous section presented papyri that are not subject to human interpretation, their scientific dates should take precedence over papyri that are subject to human interpretation. The analysis of the four remaining papyri written during Artaxerxes' reign show that the Scribe used three different calendars: One papyrus is based on the Hebrew calendar. Two papyri are based on the Egyptian calendar. and One papyrus is based on the Persian calendar most likely due to confusion at the end of Xerxes' reign of 21 years. The remaining four papyri are presented below with comments.


Persian Dated Papyrus

The scientifically dated papyrus shown above (AP 6) is perhaps the most controversial for dating the reign of Artaxerxes. Some people have used the papyrus above to skew the dates of other papyri so that the decree issued by King Artaxerxes is said to occur in 444 BC (read Nehemiah 2:1-6 for Artaxerxes decree to rebuild Jerusalem). The reason for construing the data is to support a crucifixion date of 33 AD for Jesus Christ. However, since the above papyrus is subject to interpretation, the choice of 444 BC is not valid.

The papyrus above shows that the Scribe was most likely confused as to how to date the papyrus. We can only conclude that Xerxes died in the 21st year of his reign. And King Artaxerxes had taken the throne. This papyrus only supports that a transfer in power was occurring. As such, the papyrus is dated using the Persian calendar.

Support for this conclusion comes from the fact that the papyrus was written in Elephantine, Egypt. The news of Xerxes' death would have taken up to 4 or 5 months to travel from Persia to Egypt, the death of Xerxes most likely occurred in late summer, 465 BC. The death of Xerxes occurred between August 4 to 18, 465 BC, which is supported by the papyrus date above. In addition, the seven non-interpretable papyri support the view that Xerxes died in late Summer, 465 BC.


Hebrew Dated Papyrus

The papyrus shown above (AP 8) is dated using the Hebrew calendar. The date is after the Jewish New Year of Tishri 1 but before the Egyptian New Year of Thoth 1. To align this interpretable papyrus to the non-interpretable papyri means that the Scribe used the Hebrew calendar to date the year of Artaxerxes' reign.

The papyrus is scientifically dated to November 11, 460 BC. This papyrus was written in the 6th year of King Artaxerxes' reign based on the Hebrew calendar. However, it is still the 5th year of King Artaxerxes' reign for both the Egyptian and Persian calendars.

It is important to understand that this papyrus reveals that the 5th century BCE Hebrew calendar was not well organized then (when compared to the modern day Hebrew calendar, which is calculated). This disorganization can be shown by observing that the previous papyrus (AP 6) requires the Jewish New Year (Tishri 1) to have occurred about October 17, 465 BCE. Many scholars have assumed that a leap month was added every two or three years in the 5th century BCE. The evidence is against this assumption as shown in the chart below. Please take notice that if a leap month were added, the Jewish New Year would move backwards by 19 or 20 days. This did not occur for a period of at least SIX YEARS as noted by the New Year dates given below:

Artaxerxes
Official Year
Papyrus
dated
Year Begins
Hebrew
1 January 2, 464 BC
Persian Dated
October 17, 465 BC
2 None October 7, 464 BC Jewish New Year moves forward 10 days
3 None September 26, 463 BC Jewish New Year moves forward 11 days
4 None September 15, 462 BC Jewish New Year moves forward 11 days
5 None September 3, 461 BC Jewish New Year moves forward 14 days
6 November 11, 460 BC
Hebrew Dated

May 15, 459 BC
All Calendars Agree
August 24, 460 BC
Jewish New Year moves forward 10 days
7 None September 12, 459 BC Leap Month Inserted
Jewish New Year moves back 19 days

Based on scientific dating, it would appear that a leap month would have been inserted about February 465 BC (assumed: may not be true). This means that at least six full years passed without a single leap month being inserted. This data supports that the 5th century BC Hebrew calendar was not well understood. In the 5th century BCE, there was no established method for inserting a leap month. (Click here to get more evidence that corroborates this viewpoint). This problem kept occurring until the 3rd century after Jesus Christ. The modern day Hebrew calendar with its calculated dating began to be used about 360 CE, more than 800 years later.

Based on the evidence given above, it is now time to introduce the Cairo Sandstone Stele, which verifies that the leap month was used in March, 459 BCE. The alignment of the Sandstone Stele to AP 6 and AP 8 verifies that the date given on the Sandstone Stele is correct.

In addition, the Sandstone Stele shows another great discrepancy related to the Hebrew calendar in the 5th century BCE. This item verifies that the Hebrews did not know when the new moon occurred. The evidence of the Sandstone stele verifies that the 1st day of a month occurred a full 48 hours before the new moon occurred. This discrepancy in understanding the time of the new moon becomes important as it related to the crucifixion occurring in the year AD 32. Scholars have assumed that the 1st day of a month always occurred after the new moon. The evidence does not support this assumption. For the Cairo Sandstone Stele, the 1st day of the month began on sundown on May 14, 459 BCE. The following morning at sunrise, the Egyptian month began at 6:00 AM, May 15, 459 BCE. The New Moon did not occur until sundown at 6:10 PM, May 16, 459 BCE. The evidence supports that the Hebrew month began a full 48 hours before the New Moon.

To support that this is credible, a second method corroborates that the Sandstone Stele is credible and that the 1st day of the month occurred more than 48-hours after the new moon. (Click here for the evidence and a deeper analysis that corroborates this viewpoint).


The Cairo Sandstone Stele

The Cairo Sandstone Stele falls within the March to September time-frame, which keeps it from being misinterpreted by humans. However, there is a a scribal error for the year of King Artaxerxes' reign. This problem is resolved by using the other six non-interpretable papyri. The year of King Artaxerxes' reign must be corrected from year 7 to year 6, which makes it align with the other papyri. The scientific date is May 15, 459 BC.

It is important to note that the method used herein to scientifically date all the papyri has allowed only one Scribal error. This is a vast improvement over other methods previously used and supports that it is the correct and logical way of understanding the papyri.


Egyptian Dated Papyri

The papyrus above (AP 13) is dated using the Egyptian calendar. The date is after the Jewish New Year of Tishri 1 but before the Egyptian New Year of Thoth 1. To align this interpretable papyrus to the 7 non-interpretable papyri means that the Scribe used the Egyptian calendar to date the year of Artaxerxes' reign.

This papyrus is scientifically dated to November 18, 446 BC. This papyrus was written in the 19th year of King Artaxerxes' reign based on the Egyptian calendar. If this papyrus were dated using the Hebrew calendar, it would have been the 20th year of King Artaxerxes' reign. This papyrus is important since it was written four months before Artaxerxes issued the decree to Nehemiah. It is also written the day after the events recorded in Nehemiah 1:1. This papyrus also supports that the date for Nisan 1 in 445 BC should be Sunday, March 16, 445 BC. This will be discussed in detail later.

The papyrus above (Kraeling 4) is dated using the Egyptian calendar. The date is after the Jewish New Year of Tishri 1 but before the Egyptian New Year of Thoth 1. To align this interpretable papyrus to the non-interpretable papyri means that the Scribe used the Egyptian calendar to date the year of Artaxerxes' reign.

The papyrus is scientifically dated to October 30, 434 BC. This papyrus was written in the 31st year of King Artaxerxes' reign based on the Egyptian calendar. If this papyrus were dated using the Hebrew calendar, it would have been the 32nd year of King Artaxerxes' reign.

By using Methods 1 and 2 as noted above, there are no Scribal errors detected in the papyri. The Cairo Sandstone Stele has one Scribal error, which is easily corrected based on the non-interpretable papyri. The chronology appears to be exactly what happened in the 5th century BC era of King Artaxerxes. A total of 11 papyri permit us to create a Chronological Calendar for King Artaxerxes' reign as shown on the referenced page.

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Evidence that Supports Jesus' Crucifixion Occurred on April 11, AD 32
Based on the Elephantine Papyri

Supporting Evidence

Sir Robert Anderson provided a good foundation that pointed to the crucifixion occurring on April 11, AD 32. His viewpoint was originally given in the book, "The Coming Prince" that was published about 1884. Sir Robert Anderson did not have the Elephantine papyri to use in his research. However, an in-depth study of the Elephantine papyri provides evidence that supports Sir Robert Anderson's viewpoint. And it is important to note that this is true despite recent problems found with Sir Robert Anderson's original work.

Sir Robert Anderson's viewpoint recently was found to be faulty due to missing 3 full days. According to Anderson's calculations, the decree to rebuild and restore Jerusalem as recorded in Nehemiah 2:1-6 came from King Artaxerxes on Nisan 1, which was thought to have occurred on Friday, March 14, 445 BC. By adding 173,880 days to this date, we are taken forward in time to April 6, AD 32, which is thought to be the date on which Jesus rode into Jerusalem with crowds proclaiming him to be the Messiah. (The 173,880 days are based on Daniel's prophecy that foretells of a period of 69 cycles of 7 years. When the time frame of 360 days per year are used, the value evolved comes from attaining the number of days by multiplying 69 x 7 x 360 = 173,880 days). If you need or want to review Sir Robert Anderson's viewpoint, please click here.

To resolve the issue of the 3 missing days, the solution would be to simply move the date for Nisan 1 forward to Sunday, March 16, 445 BC. By doing this, the 173,880 days fit perfectly to April 6, AD 32.

But is it realistic to move the date for Nisan 1 forward to Sunday, March 16, 445 BC?

The Elephantine papyrus dated November 18, 446 BC gives supporting evidence that the decree issued by King Artaxerxes to restore and rebuild Jerusalem most likely did occur on March 16, 445 BC. In addition, the book of Nehemiah offers more evidence that the decree would have occurred on Sunday (not on the Sabbath).

Now consider the scientifically dated papyrus dated to November 18, 446 BC. This date happens to be Kislev 2 in the Hebrew calendar. By adding the appointed days of each month, the earliest date for Nisan 1 would be Saturday, March 15, 445 BC, at 6:00 PM. Based on this logic, it is very probable that Nisan 1 began at Sundown on Saturday, March 15 and came to an end at 6:00 PM, Sunday, March 16, 445 BC. Below are the days listed for each month that supports this conclusion.

Table Chronology From Kislev 2, 446 BC to Nisan 1, 445 BC
Based on Scientific Dating the Elephantine Papyrus dated November 11, 446 BC
Hebrew
Month - Date
Julian
Date
Days in
Month
Last Day
of Month
Julian
Date
Kislev 2 November 18
446 BC (Sunset)
29 or 30 Kislev 30

30 used since too early in solar year
see below*
December 16
446 BC (Sunset)
Tebet 1 December 17
446 BC (Sunset)
29 Tebet 29
January 14
445 BC (Sunset)
Shevat 1 January 15
445 BC (Sunset)
30 Shevat 30
February 13
445 BC (Sunset)
Adar 1 February 14
445 BC (Sunset)
29 Adar 29
March 14
445 BC (Sunset)
Nisan 1 March 15
445 BC (Sunset)
30 Nisan 30
April 13
445 BC (Sunset)

*Why use Kislev 30?

Too early in the solar year means there would have been a natural tendency to add days to the end of a month or even to add a leap month. The earliest date for Nisan 1 based on scientifically dating the Elephantine papyri would have been February 27, in the year 460 BC. So adding a leap month was not a necessity for the year 446 to 445 BC.


The logical conclusion from the papyrus supports that the decree from King Artaxerxes occurred on Sunday, March 16, 445 BC. Biblical evidence that would support this conclusion comes from the book of Nehemiah. It is certain that Nehemiah would not have done work for King Artaxerxes on the Sabbath (Saturday) based on Nehemiah 13:15-22, which reads as follows:

"In those days I saw men in Judah treading winepresses on the Sabbath and bringing in grain and loading it on donkeys, together with wine, grapes, figs and all other kinds of loads. And they were bringing all this into Jerusalem on the Sabbath. Therefore I warned them against selling food on that day. Men from Tyre who lived in Jerusalem were bringing in fish and all kinds of merchandise and selling them in Jerusalem on the Sabbath to the people of Judah. I rebuked the nobles of Judah and said to them, "What is this wicked thing you are doing--desecrating the Sabbath day? Didn't your forefathers do the same things, so that our God brought all this calamity upon us and upon this city? Now you are stirring up more wrath against Israel by desecrating the Sabbath.

When evening shadows fell on the gates of Jerusalem before the Sabbath, I ordered the doors to be shut and not opened until the Sabbath was over. I stationed some of my own men at the gates so that no load could be brought in on the Sabbath day. Once or twice the merchants and sellers of all kinds of goods spent the night outside Jerusalem. But I warned them and said, "Why do you spend the night by the wall? If you do this again, I will lay hands on you." From that time on they no longer came on the Sabbath. Then I commanded the Levites to purify themselves and go and guard the gates in order to keep the Sabbath day holy" (Nehemiah 13:15-22).

Based on how Nehemiah lived his life, he would not have showed up for work on Saturday, the Sabbath.

The scientifically dated papyrus of November 11, 446 BC, supports that Nisan 1 occurred on Sunday, March 16, 445 BC. King Artaxerxes issued the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem to Nehemiah on a Sunday. (Even if the date is moved back 24 hours earlier, it is unlikely that Nehemiah stood before King Artaxerxes on a Saturday as the cupbearer. The Persian kings honored Jewish beliefs as supported by the book of Esther. The final events written in the book of Esther occurred about in February to March, 473 BC. King Artaxerxes would have been very familiar with the story of Esther).

By moving the decree forward to March 16, 445 BC, the issue of 3 missing days is eliminated based on solid evidence. There are exactly 173,880 days from Sunday March 16, 445 BC to Sunday, April 6, AD 32. The Elephantine papyri provide solid evidence that the decree to restore and rebuild Jerusalem was issued on Sunday, March 16, 445 BC.

Since the beginning of Sir Robert Anderson's work is based on solid evidence, let's move forward to the year of the crucifixion. Did the crucifixion of Jesus Christ actually occur on Friday, April 11, AD 32?

The Elephantine papyri provide supporting evidence that the crucifixion appears to have occurred in the year AD 32.

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More Evidence that Supports Jesus' Crucifixion Occurred on April 11, AD 32
Based on the Elephantine Papyri

Problems Identified with the Year AD 32

The most difficult problem with the year AD 32 is the fact that the full moon occurs on Monday, April 14, AD 32. This means that the crucifixion occurred three days before the full moon. How can this be resolved?

To begin, we must answer the question, "Is it even possible that a the calendar could be off by 3 days"

An in-depth study of the Elephantine papyri provides evidence that makes this a definite possibility. In addition, there were cultural issues between the Pharisees and the Sadduccees at the time that Jesus lived. It is certain that there was more than one calendar being used. The cultural issues that produced conflicting calendars between the Pharisees and the Sadduccees is an important item to be considered.

Let's begin with the Elephantine papyri. By scientifically dating all the papyri, some interesting facts are extracted as to how the Hebrews used their calendar. And it is certain that it is very possible for a calendar to be off by 3 full days. Consider the following facts from the Elephantine papyri

  1. The scientifically dated Cairo Sandstone Stele dated May 15, 459 BC supports that Sivan 1 occurred two full days BEFORE the new moon. Below is a histogram of data from the Elephantine papyri and Cairo Sandstone Stele that show the hours between the new moon and the 1st day of the month. Notice that the new moon occurred 48 hours before the 1st day of the month. The data below is similar to what would have occurred in the year AD 32.
  2. By statistically analyzing all the scientifically dated papyrus, it is very feasible that a calendar month could precede the new moon by three full days. It must be admitted that it would be a rare event. But it is not impossible as most people have assumed. The probability of a calendric month being three full days before the actual new moon is approximately 2.5%. Some people may not accept this low probability. But the point being made is that it is not impossible.

Cultural Issues Between the Sadduccees and the Pharisees
that Support the Crucifixion Occurred in AD 32

The Pharisees and the Sadduccees did not appreciate each other that well. In fact, we know that they used different calendars to observe specific biblical holidays. For example, the observance of the Feast of Seven Weeks (Pentecost) was defined by the Sadduccees as occurring only on a Sunday, 50 days after the Feast of First Fruits (a literal interpretation of Leviticus 23). However, the Pharisees defined the Feast of Seven Weeks as only occurring on Sivan 6 (a literal interpretation of Exodus 19). This means that the Pharisees and the Sadduccees did not observe the Feast of Weeks on the same day. Could this also be true of the Passover?

It is a known fact that in the gospel of John, the Sadduccees observed the Passover on Friday evening (Sabbath began at Sundown). This means that Nisan 15 occurred on Saturday. If this is true, then the calendar was off by 2-days in the year AD 32. In support of this view, this scenario aligns with the Cairo Sandstone Stele data as noted in the graph above. (In general, the gospel of John is viewed as a theological treatise that shows Jesus as the Son of God, dying on Nisan 14, the same day on which the lamb was slain when Moses led the Jewish people out of Egypt)

In contrast with the gospel of John, the synoptic gospels have the disciples along with the Pharisees observing the Passover on Thursday evening. Jesus ate the Passover and was crucified on Friday, Nisan 15. If this is true, then the calendar was off by 3-days in the year AD 32. (In general, the synoptic gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke are viewed as the historic date of the crucifixion. Jesus died on Nisan 15, the same day on which the Egyptians died. This means that Jesus died in the place of the Egyptians, who are symbolic of sinners. )

However, there is another possibility. Both of the scenarios above represent the historic reality due to the Pharisees and Sadduccees not accepting one another. It is possible that the Sadduccees, who controlled the temple, observed the Passover on Saturday, Nisan 15. Since the Pharisees did not get along well with the Sadduccees, they observed the Passover one day earlier, regardless of the position of the moon. If this is true, the calendar was off by 2-days. And this also serves to explain why the gospel of John is different in its dating as compared to the synoptic gospels. Finally, this scenario is very viable based on scientific dating the Elephantine papyri and Cairo Sandstone Stele in the chart above.

Other Interesting Facts for Chronologists
that Support the Crucifixion Occurred in AD 32

I have listed some other interesting facts about chronology in the 5th century BC based on scientifically dating the Elephantine papyri. This may be of interest only to history students or theological students. But these facts support that the crucifixion occurred in the year AD 32.

  1. Astronomical evidence based on the 5th century BC papyri from Elephantine, Egypt support that the earliest Passover occurred about March 11 in the 5th century BC. This is based on the scientifically dated papyrus on November 11, 460 BC. By counting nine months back, Nisan 1 would have occurred on either February 27 or 28, 460 BC.
  2. The latest date possible for Nisan 1 would have been April 23. This is based on the papyrus dated January 2, 464 BC. Since the date is Kislev 18, counting back nine months yields the late April date for Nisan 1. The Passover would have occurred in early May.
  3. In the modern Hebrew calendar, a total of 7 leaps months are added to the calendar in a 19-year cycle. So a leap month is inserted in either a 2-year or 3-year cycle to keep the lunar-solar and solar calendars in reasonable correlation as possible. (For example: If the lunar solar calendar had moved the month Nisan forward to June-July, then farmers would not use the calendar because it would be well off from its normal time of March-April).

    In contrast with the relative stability of the modern Hebrew calendar, the Elephantine papyri show that from the year 465 BC to 459 BC, only one leap month was inserted. For supporting evidence, see years 1 to 7 in The Chronological Calendar for King Artaxerxes' reign in the 5th Century BC. If you choose to investigate this phenomenon, review the Hebrew calendar column for years 1 to 7. You will find that it was only in the 7th year that Jewish New Year (Tishri 1) jumped forward from August 24, 460 BC to September 12, 459 BC.

Based on the previous three items, the stability of the Hebrew calendar and the Persian calendar wandered as much as 2-full months relative to the position of the sun. Affixing a standard calculation method to the Hebrew and Persian calendars in ancient history cannot be done since it is apparent that their calendric system was under not well understood. The Hebrew calendar and the Persian calendars were very unstable in the 5th century BC. The modern day Hebrew calendar used today (with calculated dates) did not come into use until eight centuries later (about the year AD 360). Due to the fact that the Hebrew calendar was not very stable in ancient history, it is highly probable that the crucifixion of Jesus could be off by three full days. The crucifixion date on April 11, AD 32 is highly probable based on scientific dating all the Elephantine papyri.

In contrast with the instability of the Hebrew calendar and the Persian calendars, the Egyptian calendar was very stable. It was calculated calendar that was used until Medieval times. It appears that the astronomical knowledge of the Egyptians was superior to the Persians.

Concerning AD 32 as the crucifixion date: Most theologians and history students select either the year AD 30 or 33 as the year of the crucifixion. Some select the year AD 31. Click here to get insight as to why these selections are not valid as many have assumed.

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Solar Eclipses in Biblical Events

Do the Scriptures Relate End Times to Signs in the Heavens
Such as Solar Eclipses, Lunar Eclipses, Comets, Extremely Bright Stars ...

To answer such a question, consider the recorded events when Jesus was on earth the first time.

"After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, "Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his STAR IN THE EAST and have come to worship him" (Matthew 2:1-2).

If this were a natural event, it could very well have come from a large exploding star, most often referred to as a supernova.

Based on the gospel stories, Jesus referred to heavenly signs and related them to his return to earth.

"Immediately after the distress of those days " `the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken.' "At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory. " (Matthew 24:29-30).

The scripture above seems to portend of an unprecedented heavenly event that occurs on the day that Christ actually returns. But the gospel of Luke seems to give more down to earth signs that all of us can relate to. Especially the events of 9-11-2001 and the use of the words, "fearful events".

"There will be great earthquakes, famines and pestilences in various places, and fearful events and GREAT SIGNS FROM HEAVEN" (Luke 21:11).

So what is a Great Sign from Heaven?

Could the alignment of the 14,000 days to the feast of Trumpets as well as being accompanied by a solar eclipse be a great sign from heaven?

Now consider some interesting words from the Prophet Amos.

"In that day," declares the Sovereign LORD, "I WILL MAKE THE SUN GO DOWN AT NOON AND DARKEN THE EARTH IN BROAD DAYLIGHT. I will turn your religious feasts into mourning and all your singing into weeping. I will make all of you wear sackcloth and shave your heads. I will make that time like mourning for an only son and the end of it like a bitter day. " (Amos 8:9-10).

When Jesus died on the cross, the gospel stories reveal that the day became like night. It was not possible for a solar eclipse since it was the Passover. Such an event could only be explained as a supernatural event. But at the same time, the Passover is a feast day. There is a natural link between the Feast of Passover and the day that Messiah died.

When Jesus comes again, it is believed that the pattern of the biblical feasts will continue. The springtime feasts were prophetic of New Testament events surrounding the life of Jesus at his first coming. It is believed that the autumn feasts are prophetic of when Christ comes again. There are three biblical feasts in the autumn that portend a sequence of supernatural events. The Feast of Trumpets is the Jewish New Year. In the Old Testament, these prophetic verses are found in Leviticus 23. The Feast of Trumpets is often referred to as the feast of the seventh month.

The words written by the Prophet Amos can most certainly be related to the day of Jesus' crucifixion. Could the words also refer to the return of Christ? Consider the next paragraph written in the book of Amos.

"The days are coming," declares the Sovereign LORD, "when I will send a famine through the land-- not a famine of food or a thirst for water, but a famine of hearing the words of the LORD. Men will stagger from sea to sea and wander from north to east, searching for the word of the LORD, but they will not find it" (Amos 8:11-12).

Could it be that these words foretell of a day when the people of God will be taken away? A time in which those who taught the Bible will be gone? Was the prophet Amos writing words that would be fulfilled in our time? Consider the next paragraph written by Amos.

"In that day "the lovely young women and strong young men will faint because of thirst. They who swear by the shame of Samaria (false beliefs and practices held by the non-believing world), or say, `As surely as your god lives, O Dan,' or, `As surely as the god of Beersheba (false beliefs) lives'-- they will fall, never to rise again." " (Amos 8:13-14).

The ultimate purpose of the return of Christ will witness the complete collapse of false teachings and practices concerning the Creator. According to the book of Revelation, a very large number of people will become Christians during the foretold time of trouble.

Consider that at the time that Moses lead the Jewish people out of Egypt, the false gods of the Egyptians were confronted. The Egyptians deities fell flat on their faces. And it is just as certain that God will confront the false teachings of the modern world. This has already begun to happen based on fulfilled prophecy in the 20th and 21st centuries. Consider the following prophetic events and how they bring to question the theological views of Islam.

The week that Jesus was crucified, he foretold the future of the Jewish people. Jesus said the Jewish people would be dispersed worldwide. And Jesus' foretold that the Jewish people would someday return to their homeland to gain political control of Jerusalem again. This biblical prophecy came true on June 7, 1967. It is the beginning day of the 14,000 days in modern history. The return of the Jewish people to their homeland confronts the very heart of Islamic teachings. Consider the following two beliefs held by the Islamic faith.

  1. The Qu'ran as given through Muhammad teaches its followers to hate the Jewish people.
  2. Islam teaches that it will conquer the entire world. According to the Qur'an, the entire world is destined to become Muslims. So when an area of the world changes from being Muslim controlled to non-Muslim, the very heart of Islam is in question. The return of the Jewish people to take control of their ancient homeland confronts the teachings of Islam.

Jesus foretold that the Jewish people would return to govern Jerusalem again. The foretold event was fulfilled on June 7, 1967. Could this event mean that the God of the Bible is indeed confronting the view of the Qur'an as well as Allah, who Muslims believe to be God? If you sincerely want the answer to this question, I suggest you order the book, Gabriel's Faces: voice of the Archangel ISBN 0-9640404-2-5.

The ultimate purpose of the return of Christ will witness the complete collapse of false teachings and practices concerning the Creator.

At the end of the tribulation, the world will be completely transformed. Islam will no longer be around to spread its message of human self-righteousness and hate for the Jewish people. Instead, the prophet Isaiah foretells that the false gods of this world will be put aside. The Arab people and the Jewish people will lay down their weapons of war to live in peace. Consider the words written by the prophet Isaiah.

"In that day the Egyptians will be like women. They will shudder with fear at the uplifted hand that the LORD Almighty raises against them. And the land of Judah will bring terror to the Egyptians; everyone to whom Judah is mentioned will be terrified, because of what the LORD Almighty is planning against them. . . .

The LORD will strike Egypt with a plague; he will strike them and heal them. They will turn to the LORD, and he will respond to their pleas and heal them. In that day there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria. The Assyrians will go to Egypt and the Egyptians to Assyria. The Egyptians and Assyrians will worship together. In that day Israel will be the third, along with Egypt and Assyria, a blessing on the earth. The LORD Almighty will bless them, saying, "Blessed be Egypt my people, Assyria my handiwork, and Israel my inheritance " (Isaiah 19:16-17, 22-25).

Based on Isaiah's vision of the Messiah, there is hope for our world. Are you ready for the coming of the Lord?

The good news of the gospels is that Jesus Christ came to our world to bring salvation and peace to all people. Access to God and peace with God comes only through the Messiah, Jesus. And each of us is given the choice of accepting and following Jesus. Will you make that choice today? If yes, click here.

Mysterious Alignments on October 4, 2005
Solar Eclipse, Feast of Trumpets, 14,000 days, Ramadan, and occult practices

The year 2005 is a sabbatical year. Consider the following alignments to October 4, 2005 for the monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

  • A solar eclipse will occur on October 3, 2005. This solar eclipse will be viewed from all nations where the Bible was written in ancient history (for example: Egyptian Empire, Babylonian Empire, Persian Empire, Greek Empire, and the Roman Empire).
  • The Jewish New Year is called Rosh Hashanah. In the Bible, this day is called the Feast of Trumpets. On this feast day, the Jewish people go to their synagogues to listen to a sermon that is accompanied with trumpet blasts. The Feast of Trumpets is based on the number seven and is found in the book of Leviticus.
  • "The LORD said to Moses, "Say to the Israelites: `On the first day of the seventh month you are to have a day of rest, a sacred assembly commemorated with trumpet blasts" (Leviticus 23:22-23).

    The Hebrew word means to blow trumpets and includes the idea of shouting. In the New Testament, the Apostle Paul refers to a day on which the dead in Christ will rise from the dead and all true believers will join them. This day is associated with the blowing of trumpets and the voice (shout) of the Archangel. Consider the verse.

    "For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever. Therefore encourage each other with these words. " (1 Thess. 4:16-18).

  • The culmination of the 14,000 day theory is October 4, 2005. According to this theory, 14,000 days are hidden inside the "time-oriented" 70 weeks prophecy found in Daniel 9 (given to Daniel from the Archangel Gabriel). Daniel foretold that the Messiah would be killed as a sacrificial offering followed by the destruction of both the temple and Jerusalem, which did occur in AD 70. Please refer to the Spiritual Technology web site with in-depth analysis of the Christian perspective.
  • In Islam, the holy month of Ramadan begins on October 4, 2005. Muslims believe that Ramadan is the month in which Muhammad began to receive spiritual revelation. Was Muhammad a true prophet of God?

What is the significance of these mysterious alignments?

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Mystery Babylon in the Book of Revelation
Worldwide Religion that will Lead People away from the True Messiah
The rise and fall of a worldwide global economy endowed with spiritual deception....

How Orthodox Christianity relates to other belief systems or practices has not always been considered to be pleasant. Jesus Christ claimed to be the Creator that became a part of the creation in the divine Messiah. Jesus claims to be the only way to get to heaven. Click here if you want to consider this reality at a high confidence level. I recommend that you read the entire web page.

According to the book of Revelation, a worldwide false religion and deceptive government will develop and govern the entire globe during the tribulation. There will be an intimate relationship between government, the global economy, and worldwide religion. The "key" to understanding this relationship comes from prophecies in the book of Revelation. Interpreting the book of Revelation due to its emphasis on symbolism requires gaining insight into its prophecies by only using the rest of the Bible. The emphasis of this approach is that the Bible must be used to interpret the symbolism found in the book of Revelation.

Consider words found in the book of Revelation. As you read this scripture, you will notice that I have placed other Bible references in parenthesis to aid in understanding what these symbolic words mean. By clicking on the reference, a quick pop-up window will appear with another scripture to explain the symbolism.

"One of the seven angels ... came and said to me, "Come, I will show you the punishment of the great prostitute (symbolism for prostitute), who sits on many waters. With her the kings of the earth committed adultery and the inhabitants of the earth were intoxicated with the wine of her adulteries (symbolism of adultery)."

Then the angel carried me away in the Spirit into a desert. There I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet beast that was covered with blasphemous names and had seven heads and ten horns (symbolism of scarlet beast 7 heads 10 horns). The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet (symbolism of fine linen), and was glittering with gold, precious stones and pearls. She held a golden cup in her hand, filled with abominable things (symbolism of golden cup with abominations) and the filth of her adulteries. This title was written on her forehead:

MYSTERY
BABYLON THE GREAT
THE MOTHER OF PROSTITUTES
AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.

I saw that the woman was drunk with the blood of the saints, the blood of those who bore testimony to Jesus. When I saw her, I was greatly astonished. Then the angel said to me: "Why are you astonished? I will explain to you the mystery of the woman and of the beast she rides, which has the seven heads and ten horns" (Revelation 17:1-7).

The rich symbolism portrays a worldwide false religion that is in cohesion with a one-world government. There are several characteristics that identify some interesting aspects of the end time one-world government and its religion. This is based on the symbolism portrayed by the Scripture above.

  1. A vibrant global economy: Based on the woman being clothed in fine linen, gold, gems and other costly goods.
  2. One-world government that brings together the nations of the world.
  3. One-world religion that brings together the religions of the world while rejecting biblical truth.
    (Rejection of Christ as the only way to God)
  4. Persecution of those who reject the false religion.


Now consider how the 14,000 days that point to Rosh Hashanah on October 4, 2005. What is going to happen? There are several scriptural possibilities.

  1. Nothing will happen.
  2. The Rapture of the church based on I Thessalonians 4:16-18. Have you asked Christ into your life and are you trusting Christ alone for salvation?
  3. A peace agreement between the Israelis and their Muslim counterparts. Will a Jewish temple to be erected on the temple mount in Jerusalem next to the Mosques?
    (By this theory, a tent will be erected and then the temple will be constructed around it).
  4. Another possibility is that the rapture will not occur until the antichrist personality is revealed based on 2 Thessalonians 2:1-4 in combination with Revelation 13:1-3. According to 2 Thessalonians 2:1-4, the rapture will not occur until the so-called antichrist personality appears. At this time (October 1, 2005), nobody know who this person is. It is appropriate to ask, "When will the antichrist personality be revealed?"
  5. According to the symbolism found in Revelation 13:1-3, a one world government will evolve before the antichrist personality can appear. The symbolism of the one world government is represented by Revelation 13:1-2 as follows:

    "And the dragon stood on the shore of the sea. And I saw a beast coming out of the sea. He had ten horns and seven heads, with ten crowns on his horns, and on each head a blasphemous name. The beast (symbolism in Scripture for this beast) I saw resembled a leopard, but had feet like those of a bear and a mouth like that of a lion. The dragon gave the beast his power and his throne and great authority" (Revelation 13:1-2).

    The symbolism in the verses above refers us to Daniel 7, where each of the four beasts have joined to become one. Based on the sequence of the verses, the setting up of a one world government is required before the antichrist personality can be revealed. This is supported by the sequence of events in Revelation 13:3 as follows:

    "One of the heads of the beast seemed to have had a fatal wound, but the fatal wound had been healed. The whole world was astonished and followed the beast. 4Men worshiped the dragon because he had given authority to the beast, and they also worshiped the beast and asked, "Who is like the beast? Who can make war against him?" " (Revelation 13:3).

    The sequence of the verses in Revelation 13:1-3 requires a one-world government followed by the appearing of the antichrist personality. Perhaps the end of the 14,000 days will lead to events that evolve a one world government based on anti-Christian principles, Out of this one world system, the antichrist personality will appear. Then the rapture is sequentially possible if the described sequence is required.

  6. What if the Rapture does not occur? Will you decide that the Christian faith is a hoax and walk away from being a truly committed Christian? (If these are thoughts that have crossed your mind, I highly suggest that you read and study the entire Spiritual Technology web site).
  7. What if you get left behind?

Click here to send an e-mail that you desire to know for certain that you're a Christian.

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